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The mountains

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How the mountains came up was not absolutely defined, but the story seemed clear, even if the authorship was somewhat moot, and it was a story of rhythmically successive orogenies, chapter headings in the biography of the earth. Some geologists preferred to liken them to punctuation marks, because mountain-building phases took up so little of all time-as little as one per cent, no more than ten per cent, depending on the geologist who was calculating the time. Anita conference room amsterdam said, choosing North America’s most eminent example, “The Gulf of Mexico is a big geosyncline, if you want. The big birdfoot delta of the Mississippi River is one hell of a sedimentary pile. Drill twenty-two thousand feet down and you’re still in the Eocene. The crust will take about forty thousand feet of sediment-that’s the elastic limit. Then it regurgitates the sediment, which begins to rebound. The sediment is also heated up, melted. Water, gas, and oil come out of the rock. Sedimentary layers move up with thermal drives as well as with isostasy. Sedimentary layers also move laterally, and are thus thrust sheets. In Cambra-Ordovician time, fifty million years or so before the Taconic mountains came up, the continent was to the west of us here, the coastline was in central Ohio, and to the east of us, where the Atlantic shelf is now, stood an island arc like Japan. There are volcaniclastic sediments of that age from Newfoundland to Georgia-just about the length of Japan. The present coast of Asia is the Ohio coastline in that story. Picture the sediment that is pouring off the Japanese islands into the Sea of Japan. The Martinsburg slates were shed not from the continent-not from Ohio-but conference room rotterdam mainly from the east, from the island arc offshore. You pile up forty thousand feet of sediment and it pops. The Martinsburg popped. The Taconic mountains came up. Once the process starts, it keeps itself going. You push up a mountain range, erode it into the west. The material depresses the crust. It is low-density material and it is brought down into the regime of high-density material. When enough has been piled on, the low-density material comes back up. That is how orogenic waves propagate themselves, each mountain mass being cannibalized to produce a new mountain mass to the west. But I still don’t know what started the process.”

An enormous burden

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A braided river carries such an enormous burden of sand and gravel that it does not meander through its valley like most streams, making cutbanks to one side and point bars opposite. Instead, it runs in braided channels through its own broad bed. Looking at those Silurian conglomerates, I could all but hear the big braided rivers I had seen coming down from the Alaska Range, with gravels a co-working space amsterdam mile wide, caribou and bears on the gravel, and channels flowing in silver plaits. If those rivers testify, as they do, to the erosional disassembling of raw young mountains, then so did the rock before us, with its clean river gravels preserved in river sand. “Geology repeats itself,” Anita said, and we moved along, touching, picking at the rock. She pointed out the horse-belly curves of channel-fill deposits, and the fact that none was deeper than five feet-a result of the braiding and the shifting of the channels. Evidently, the calm earth and quiet seas that were described by the older rock we had collected up the road had been utterly revolutionized in the event that built the ancient mountains, which, bald as the djebels of Arabia, had stood to the east and shed the sand and gravel this way. In the ripple marks, the crossbedding, the manner in which the sands had come to rest,  Anita could see the westerly direction of the braided-river currents more than four hundred million years ago. Three hundred years ago, William Penn arrived in this country and decided almost at once that the Lenape were Jews. “Their eye is little and black, not unlike a straight-look’t Jew,” he wrote home. “I am ready to believe them of the Jewish race ….A man would think himself in Dukes-place or Berry-street in London, when he seeth them.” They were “generally tall, straight, well-built” people “of singular proportion.” They greased themselves with clarified bear fat. Penn studied their language-the better to know them, the better to work out his treaties. “Their language is lofty, yet narrow, but like the  co-working space rotterdam Hebrew ….O ne word serveth in the place of three ….I must say that I know not a language spoken in Europe tlrnt hath words of more sweetness or greatness, in accent or emphasis, than theirs.” Penn heard “grandeur” in their tribal proper names. He listed them: Tammany, Poquessin, Rancocas, Shakamaxon. He could have added Wyomissing, Wissinoming, Wyoming. He made treaties with the Lenape under the elms of Shakamaxon. Tammany was present. He was to become the most renowned chief in the history of the tribe.

Columbus

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Many of them resembled conical incisors, and in i856 this had caused a Latvian paleontologist to give them their name. Conodonts were in many formations but were most easily extracted from limestone and dolomite-the carbonate rocks. They would become useful to geologists because they flexplek huren leeuwarden were all over the earth, and because the creatures that left them behind had appeared in the world early in the Paleozoic and had vanished forever at the end of the Triassic. Yet not until the late nineteen-fifties did studies begin to be published that brought conodonts to prominence as index fossils, helping to subdivide a specific zone of time, a fifteenth of the history of the earth, running from 512 to 208 million years before the present. As the conodont-bearing creatures evolved through those years, their conodonts became increasingly complex, with apparatus extending in denticles, bars, and blades. Geologists, observing these changes, could readily assign relative ages to the places where conodonts were found. After collecting her samples, Anita could not have been shipping them back to a better place than Ohio State. Just as Johns Hopkins has been celebrated for lacrosse, Hartwick for soccer, and Rollins for tennis, Ohio State is known for conodonts. Geologists call Ohio State “a conodont factory.” Like all the other workers there (a specialist in the field is known in the profession as “a conodont worker”), she noticed incidentally as she catalogued the evolutionary changes in her specimens that some were light and some were dark. They were white, brown, yellow, tan, and gray. Since they were coming into Columbus from all over the United States, and in fact the flexplek huren rotterdam world, she began to notice that in a general way their colors followed geographical patterns. She wondered what that might suggest. She looked at conodonts from Kentucky and Ohio, which were of a yellow so pale it was almost white. From western Pennsylvania they were jonquil, from central Pennsylvania brown. The ones she had collected north of Schuylkill Gap were black.

Sinuous, morainal

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The ice sheets of the present era, in their successive spreadings overland, have borne immense freight-rock they pluck up, shear off, rip from the country as they move. They grind much of it into gravel, sand, silt, and clay. When the ice melts, it gives up its cargo, dumping it by the trillions of tons. The most recent advance has been called the Wisconsinan ice sheet, because its effects are well displayed in Wisconsin. Its effects, for all that, are not unimpressive in New York. The glacier dumped Long Island where it is (nearly a hundred per cent of Long Island), and flexplek huren leeuwarden Nantucket, and Cape Cod, and all but the west end of Martha’ s Vineyard. Wherever the ice stopped and began to melt back, it signed its retreat with terminal moraines-huge accumulations of undifferentiated rock, sand, gravel, and clay. The ice stopped at Perth Amboy, Metuchen, North Plainfield, Madison, Morristown-leaving a sinuous, morainal, lobate line that not only connects these New Jersey towns but keeps on going to the Rocky Mountains. West of Morristown, old crystalline rock from the earth’s basement-long ago compressed, distorted, and partially melted, driven upward and westward in the Appalachian upheavals-stands now in successive ridges, which are called the New Jersey Highlands. They trend northeast-southwest. With a notable exception, they have discouraged east-west construction of roads. When the last ice sheet set down its terminal mora\ne, it built causeways from one ridge to another, on which Interstate 80 rides west. Over the continent, the ice had spread southward about as evenly as spilled milk, and there is great irregularity in its line of maximum advance. South of Buffalo, it failed to reach Pennsylvania, but it plunged deep into Ohio, Indiana, Illinois. The ice sheets set up and started Niagara Falls. They moved the Ohio River. They dug the Great Lakes. The ice melted back in stages. Pausing here and there in flexplek huren rotterdam temporary equilibrium, it sometimes readvanced before continuing its retreat to the north. Wherever these pauses occurred, as in northeastem Indiana, boulders and cobbles and sand and gravel piled up in prodigal quantity-a cadence of recessional moraines, hills of rock debris. The material, heterogeneous and unsorted, has its own style of fabric, in which geologists can see the moves and hesitations of the ice, not to mention its weight and velocity. Scottish farmers, long before they had any idea what had laid such material upon Scotland, called it till, by which they meant to convey a sense of “ungenial subsoil,” of coarse obdurate land.

The birth of the oceans

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“The birth of the oceans is a matter of conjecture, the subsequent history is obscure, and the present structure is just beginning to be understood. Fascinating speculation on these subjects has been plentiful, but not much of it predating the last decade holds water.”) Certain major plates are about half covered with ocean-the South American Plate, the African Plate, the North American Plate. Australia and India are parts of the same plate. It is shaped like a boomerang, with the landmasses at either end. It may be in the early stages of separating itself into two plates. The northern section has a slightly different motion but there is no sharp boundary. In Africa, the flexplek huren amsterdam terrane east of the Great Rift Valley is far enough along in the act of separation to be called the Somalian Plate, but the boundary is not yet continuous. Continents in themselves are not drifting, are not cruise ships travelling the sea. Continents are high parts of plates. East-west, the North American Plate starts in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean and ends in San Francisco. West-east, the Eurasian Plate begins in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean and ends in the sea of Okhotsk. It is the plates that move. They all move. They move in varying directions and at different speeds. The Adriatic Plate is moving north. The African Plate came up behind it and drove it into Europe-drove Italy like a nail into Europe-and thus created the Alps. The South American Plate is moving west. The Nazca Plate is moving east. The Antarctic Plate is spinning, like pan ice in a river. As has happened only twice before in geology-with Abraham Werner’s neptunist system and James Hutton’s Theory of the Earth -the theory of plate tectonics has assembled numerous disparate phenomena into a single narrative. Where plates separate, they produce oceans. Where they collide, they make mountains. As oceans grow, and flexplek huren rotterdam the two sides move apart, new seafloor comes into the middle. New seafloor is continuously forming at the trailing edge of the plate. Old seafloor, at the leading edge of a plate, dives into deep ocean trenches-the Kuril Trench, the Aleutian Trench, the Marianas Trench, the Java Trench, the Japan Trench, the Philippine Trench, the Peru-Chile Trench.

The very first place

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The very first place which I examined, namely St. Jago in the Cape de Verde islands, showed me clearly the wonderful superiority of Lyell’ s manner of treating geology, compared with that of any other author whose works I had with me or ever afterwards read.” When Darwin had first studied geology, he had heard lectures in Wemerian neptunism at Edinburgh, and they had very nearly put him to sleep. Nevertheless, the degree he later took at zakelijke energie Cambridge University was in geology. He referred to himself as a geologist. His field identifications of the rocks he collected on his travels, and of the minerals within the rocks, were essentially without error. The rocks are in Cambridge, where contemporary geologists have thin-sectioned them, confirming Darwin’s petrology. Voyaging on the Beagle, he was enhancing his sense of the slow and repetitive cycles of the earth and the giddying depths of time, with Lyell’s book in his hand and Hutton’s theory in his head. In six thousand years, you could never grow wings on a reptile. With sixty million, however, you could have feathers, too.
According to present theory, many exotic terranes moved in from the western ocean and collected against North America during a span of about three hundred million years which ended roughly forty million years ago, increasing the continent to something like its present size. Three of these assembled at the latitude of Interstate 80. It was the first of these collisions that crunched and folded the wine-red sandstone near Carlin. The second, in the early Triassic, is what zakelijke energie vergelijken apparently caused the whole Carlin unconformity to revolve quite close to its present position. Sonomia, as the second terrane has been named, included much of what is now western Nevada and eastern California, and is said to have come into the continent with such force-notwithstanding that it was moving an inch or so a year-that it overlapped its predecessor by as much as eighty kilometres before it finally stopped. The evidence of this event is known locally as the Golconda Thrust, and both its upper and lower components are exposed in a big roadcut on the western flank of Golconda Summit, where the interstate, coming up out of Pumpernickel Valley, crosses a spur of the Sonoma Range. Small wonder that Deffeyes pulled over when we came to it and said, “Let’s stick our eyeballs on this one.”

General propinquity

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Since it was Hutton’s idea that granite was not a “primary” rock but something that had come up into Scotland from below, molten, to intrude itself into the existing schist, there ought to be pieces of schist embedded here and there in the granite. There were. “We may now conclude,” Hutton wrote later, “that without seeing granite actually in a fluid state we have every demonstration possible of this fact; that is to say, of granite having been forced to flow in a state of fusion among the strata broken by a subterraneous force, and distorted in every manner and degree.” What called most for demonstration was Hutton’s essentially novel and all but incomprehensible sense of time. In 4004 + i 785 years, you would scarcely find the time to make a Ben Nevis, let alone a Gibraltar or the domes of Wales. Hutton had seen Hadrian’s Wall running across moor and fen after sixteen hundred winters in Northumberland. Not a great deal had happened to it. The geologic process was evidently slow. To accommodate his theory, all that was required was time, adequate time, time in quantities no mind had yet conceived; and what Hutton needed now was a statement in rock, a graphic example, a zakelijke energie breath-stopping view of deep time. There was a formation of “schistus” running through southern Scotland in general propinquity to another formation called Old Red Sandstone. The schistus had obviously been pushed around, and the sandstone was essentially flat. If one could see, somewhere, the two formations touching each other with strata awry, one could not help but see that below the disassembling world lie the ruins of a disassembled world below which lie the ruins of still another world. Having figured out inductively what would one day be called an angular unconformity, Hutton went out to look for one. In a damp country covered with heather, with gorse and bracken, with larches and pines, textbook examples of exposed rock were extremely hard to find. As Hutton would write later, in the prototypical lament of the field geologist, “To a naturalist nothing is indifferent; the humble moss that creeps upon the stone is equally interesting as zakelijke energie vergelijken the lofty pine which so beautifully adorns the valley or the mountain: but to a naturalist who is reading in the face of rocks the annals of a former world, the mossy covering which obstructs his view, and renders undistinguishable the different species of stone, is no less than a serious subject of regret.”

Red Rock Pass

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Then it grew some more. At Red Rock Pass, in Idaho, it spilled over the brim of the Great Basin and into the Snake River Plain. By now it was as large as Lake Michigan. It was not a glacial lake, just a sort of side effect of the distant glaciation, and it sat there for thousands of years with limestone terraces forming and waves cutting benches at the shoreline. Eventually, it began to drop, in stages, pausing
Book I: Basin and Range
wherever evaporation and precipitation were in temporary equilibrium, and more benches were cut and more terraces were made, and then as the rain shadow took over again, the \\jater shrank back past Erie size and kept on shrinking and turning more and more chemical and getting smaller and zakelijke energie vergelijken shallower and shallower and smaller and near the end of its days became the Great Salt Lake. The Great Salt Lake reached out to our right and disappeared in snow. In a sense, there was no beach. The basin flatness just ran to the lake and kept on going, wet. The angle formed at the shoreline appeared to be about i79.9 degrees. There were dark shapes of islands, firmaments in the swirling snow-elongate, north-southtrending islands, the engulfed summits of buried ranges. “Chemically, this is one of the toughest environments in the world,” Deffeyes said. “You swing from the saltiest to the most dilute waters on the planet in a matter of hours. Some of the most! primitive things living are all that can take that. The brine is nearly saturated with sodium chloride. For a short period each year, so much water comes down out of the Wa satch that large parts of the lake surface are relatively fresh. Any creature living there gets an osmotic shock that zakelijke energie amounts to hundreds of pounds per square inch. No higher plants can take that, no higher animals-no multicelled organisms. Few bacteria. Few algae. Brine shrimp, which do live there, die by the millions from the shock.”

This Triassic journey

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This Triassic journey, anyway, is happening two hundred and ten million years ago, or five per cent back into the existence of the earth. From the subalpine peaks of New Jersey, the descent is long and gradual to the lowlands of western Pennsylvania, where flat-lying sedimentary rocks begin to reach out across the craton-coals and sandstones, shales and limestones, slowly downwasting, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, erosionally losing an inch every thousand years. Where the Missouri will flow, past Council Bluffs, you come into a world of ruddy hills, Permian red, that zakelijke energie continue to the far end of Nebraska, where you descend to the Wyoming flats. Sandy in places, silty, muddy, they run on and on, near sea level, all the way across Wyoming and into Utah. They are as red as brick. They will become the red cliffs and red canyons of Wyoming, the walls of Flaming Gorge. Triassic rock is not exclusively red, but much of it is red all over the world-red in the shales of New Jersey, red in the sandstones of Yunan, red in the banks of the Volga, red by the Salway Firth. T1iassic red beds, as they are called, are in the dry valleys of Antarctica, the red marls of Worcestershire, the hills of Alsace-Lorraine. The Petrified Forest. The Painted Desert. The South African red beds of the Great Karroo. Triassic red rock is red through and through, and not merely weathered red on the surface, like the great Redwall limestone of the Grand Canyon, which is actually gray. There may have been a superabundance of oxygen in the atmosphere from late Pennsylvanian through Permian and Triassic time. As sea level changed and changed again all through the Pennsylvanian, tremendous quantities of vegetation grew and then were drowned and buried, grew and then were drowned and buried-to become, eventually, seam upon seam of coal, interlayered with sandstones and shales. Living plants take in carbon dioxide, keep the carbon in their carbohydrates, and give up the oxygen to the atmosphere. Animals, from bacteria upward, then eat the plants and reoxidize the carbon. This cycle would go awry if a great many plants were buried. Their c ·arbon zakelijke energie vergelijken would be buried with them-isolated in rock-and so the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere would build up.

Economische groei

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Economische groei is dus het onmisbare raakpunt geworden waar bijna alle moderne religies, ideologieën en bewegingen samenkomen. De Sovjet-Unie was met haar megalomane vijfjarenplannen net zo geobsedeerd door groei als de meest kapitalistische Amerikaanse uitzuiger. Net als christenen en moslims, die allemaal in de hemel geloven en het er alleen niet over eens zijn hoe je daar moet komen, geloofden zowel kapitalisten als communisten tijdens de Koude Oorlog in het scheppen van een hemel op aarde door middel van economische groei en kantoorruimte huren amsterdam ruzieden ze alleen over de juiste methode. Tegenwoordig kunnen hervormingsgezinde hindoes, vrome moslims, Japanse nationalisten en Chinese communisten allemaal heel verschillende waarden en dromen nastreven, maar ze geloven inmiddels allemaal dat economische groei de sleutel is tot het verwezenlijken van hun afzonderlijke doelen. In 2014 werd de devote hindoe Narendra Modi verkozen tot minister-president van India, wat grotendeels te danken was aan het succes waarmee hij de economische groei in zijn thuisstaat Gujarat had bevorderd en aan het alom heersende idee dat hij de versufte nationale economie een oppepper kon geven. Vergelijkbare ideeën houden de islamist Recep Tayyip Erdogan al sinds 2003 aan de macht in Turkije. De naam van zijn partij – de Partij voor Rechtvaardigheid en Ontwikkeling -benadrukt de verknochtheid aan economische groei en de regering-Erdogan zorgt inderdaad al ruim een decennium voor indrukwekkende groeicijfers. De premier van Japan – de nationalist Shinzo Abë – trad in 2012 in functie met de belofte de Japanse economie na twee decennia van stagnatie eens stevig op te krikken. Zijn agressieve en ietwat ongebruikelijke maatregelen om dat te bereiken hebben de bijnaam ‘Abenomics’ gekregen. Intussen bewijst de communistische partij in het naburige China nog steeds lippendienst aan de aloude marxistisch-leninistische idealen, maar in de praktijk wordt ze kantoorruimte huren rotterdam geleid door Deng Xiaopings beroemde motto’s ‘ontwikkeling is de enige harde waarheid’ en ‘het maakt niet uit of een kat zwart of wit is, zolang ze maar muizen vangt’. Wat in gewonemensentaal betekent: doe er alles aan om economische groei te bevorderen, zelfs als Marx en Lenin er niet blij mee zouden zijn.